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Ineffective Breathing PatternNursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern | Definition of Ineffective Breathing Pattern; Defining Characteristics of Ineffective Breathing Pattern; Related Factors of Ineffective Breathing Pattern;

Definition of Ineffective Breathing Pattern

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Inspiration and/or expiration that does not provide adequate ventilation

Defining Characteristics of Ineffective Breathing Pattern

  • Accessory muscle use
  • Abnormal heart rate response to activity
  • Altered respiratory rate or depth or both
  • Assumption of 3-point position
  • Decreased minute ventilation
  • Decreased vital capacity
  • Decreased tidal volume
  • Dyspnea
  • Nasal flaring
  • Prolonged expiratory phase
  • Pursed lip breathing

Related Factors of Ineffective Breathing Pattern

  • Anxiety
  • Body position
  • Chest wall deformity
  • Musculoskeletal impairment
  • Obesity
  • Pain
  • Respiratory muscle fatigue

Assessment Focus | Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern

Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern | Assessment Focus; Expected Outcomes; Suggested NOC Outcomes

Assessment Focus of Ineffective Breathing Pattern (Refer To Comprehensive Assessment Parameters.)

  • Activity/exercise
  • Cardiac function
  • Neurologic and mental status
  • Respiratory function

Expected Outcomes | Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern

The patient will

  • Maintain respiratory rate within 5 of baseline.
  • Regain arterial blood gases to baseline.
  • Express feelings of comfort when breathing.
  • Demonstrate diaphragmatic pursed-lipped breathing.
  • Achieve maximal lung expansion with adequate ventilation.
  • Maintain heart rate, rhythm, and blood pressure within expected range during periods of activity.
  • Demonstrate skill in conserving energy while carrying out ADLs.

Suggested NOC Outcomes | Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern

Mechanical Ventilation Response: Adult; Respiratory Status: Airway Patency; Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange; ADLs

Nursing Interventions of Ineffective Breathing Pattern | Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern

Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern | Nursing Interventions of Ineffective Breathing Pattern and Rationales; Suggested NIC Interventions

Interventions of Ineffective Breathing Pattern and Rationales

  • Monitor and record respiratory rate and depth at least every 4 hr to detect early stages of respiratory failure. Auscultate breath sounds at least every 4 hr to detect decreased or adventitious breath sounds. Report changes.
  • Administer oxygen, as ordered, to maintain an acceptable level of oxygen at the tissue level.
  • Suction airway as needed to maintain patent airways.
  • Assist patient to Fowler’s position, which will promote expansion of lungs and provide comfort. Support upper extremities with pillows, providing a table and cover it with a pillow to lean on.
  • Turn and reposition patient at least every 2 hr. Establish a turning schedule for the dependent patient. Post schedule at bedside and monitor frequency. Turning and repositioning prevent skin breakdown and improve lung expansion and prevent atelectasis.
  • Assist patient with ADLs as needed to conserve energy and avoid overexertion.
  • Encourage active exercise: Provide a trapeze or other assistive device whenever possible. Such devices simplify moving and turning for many patients and allow them to strengthen some upper body muscles.
  • Teach patient the following measures to promote participation in maintaining health status and improve ventilation: pursed lip breathing, abdominal breathing, and relaxation techniques (deep breathing, meditation, guided imagery), taking prescribed medications (ensuring accuracy and frequency and monitoring side effects); and scheduling of activities to allow for rest periods.
  • Teach caregivers to assist patient with ADLs in a way that maximizes patient’s potential. This enables caregivers to participate in patient’s care and encourages them to support patient’s independence.
  • Provide emotional support and encouragement to improve patient’s self-concept and motivate patient to perform ADLs.
  • Involve patient in planning and decision making. Having the ability to participate will encourage greater compliance with the plan for activity.
  • Have patient perform self-care activities. Begin slowly and increase daily, as tolerated. Performing self-care activities will assist patient to regain independence and enhance self-esteem. Schedule activities to allow for periods of rest.
  • Refer to case manager/social worker to ensure that a home assessment has been done and that whatever modifications were needed to accommodate the patient’s level of mobility have been made. Making adjustments in the home will allow the patient a greater degree of independence in performing ADLs, allowing better conservation of energy.
  • Refer patient for evaluation of exercise potential and development of individualized exercise program. Gradual increase in exercise will promote conditioning and ease breathing.

Suggested NIC Interventions | Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern

Airway Management; Anxiety Reduction; Oxygen therapy; Progressive Muscle Relaxation; Respiratory Monitoring

This is a sample of Nursing Diagnosis for Ineffective Breathing Pattern

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